Document Type

Journal Article

Department/ Unit

Department of Education Studies


This study focuses on the transformation of the pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers’ Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these educational settings. The history of the development of this organization is deeply intertwined with the politics of education and the social transformation of that period. That development provides an understanding of how the pro-Beijing educators constructed an alternative culture that opposed the colonial government, and was later transformed to service as a pro-Hegemonic force in the post-1997 era. In additional, rapid and widespread changes were taking place through-out Hongkongese life. Labour education was once viewed as a radical project to enhance working-class’s anti-hegemonic consciousness, socialist practices and political activism in the colonial Hong Kong. The introduction of international standards, global benchmarks for career and technical education and the transfer of sovereignty have created a new situation forcing these pro-Beijing educators to respond quickly. This article aims to see how the pro-Beijing educators related to international standard for vocational training and how the schools transforms itself to fit into the industrialized, market-oriented and globalized society of HKSAR (Hong Kong Special Administrative Region).

Publication Year


Journal Title

Educational Research for Policy and Practice

Volume number


Issue number



Springer Science & Business Media

First Page (page number)


Last Page (page number)




ISSN (print)


Link to Publisher’s Edition


Pro-Beijing labour education in capitalist society; History of education; The politics of education

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