Author

顧澤

Year of Award

2016

Degree Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Philosophy (MPhil)

Department

人文及創作系

Principal Supervisor

黃國鉅

Keywords

胡適, 1891-1962.

Language

Chinese

Abstract

胡適是在「傳統中國」走向「現代中國」關鍵時期「始終活躍在思想界的中心人物」,更是被公認為整個中國歷史上「繼往開來的一位啓蒙大師」。本文研究1891至1917年間胡適的「國家」概念。研究從指出他在這個時間段三個不同時間點的故事中關於國家概念論述的差異性出發,首先追問的便是各種指稱國家的語詞與實體國家之間是否可以具有內在統一性的問題。於是在第一章中,本文圍繞故事一與故事三中胡適用詞與用句的特點進行了文本分析,闡明它們背後所代表的意義,並進一步將與兩個故事存在密切關聯的相關概念分別做了比較研究。總體來看,得到的結論有兩點:1.一個語詞在同時代的不同個體理解下存在差異;2.一個個體也會經常修正自己的語詞使用,從而導致同一語詞在不同的時間點可能代表著不同的含義。這就為我們理解語詞與事物的關係提出了挑戰--究竟我們能不能談論所用的語詞來指稱某個對象時具有正確性?漢斯-格奧爾格伽達默爾(Hans-Georg Gadamer)在《真理與方法》(Truth and Method)第三部份「以語言為主線的詮釋學本體論轉向」中的理論架構,為擺脫這個困境提供了很好的論證途徑。通過關於上帝語言的討論來承接古希臘的邏各斯與語言現象中的概念構成,伽達默爾意在指出,只有語詞的使用才是有正確與錯誤之分的,而語詞本身都是正確的、「合適」的。於是,接下去的問題便是為何個人在使用語詞上會出現偏差?對偏差的修正又是如何可能發生的?第二章便是通過對於胡適案例中三個故事的詳細展開,將胡適的國家概念呈現為是一種連續不斷地圍繞著一個個具體的事件來回展開思辨的過程。這個概念構成的過程,是在伴隨著胡適對於自己舊有概念不停再檢驗的同時,慢慢深化與拓展的。而伽達默爾在世界經驗的思辨結構中所指出的事件性與創造性,為我們理解這樣的國家概念提供了理論幫助。最後,本文採用「民族國家認同」的角度來系統性地整合第一、二章中對於國家概念的兩種歷史性的追溯方法。概括來說,政治參與作為一種世界經驗,能促使具有特殊性意味的歷史文化認同發生反思,並進而與發現的具有普遍性意味的政治認同進行調和。也正是由於要突出思辨的過程性質,不同於以往對於胡適政治觀的普遍認識,本文指出留美時期的胡適更多意義上體現的是一種「共和派的愛國主義」。就這點而言,胡適案例意在表明,思想史的研究需要盡力在歷史環境中恢復概念思想者在過去、現在與將來之間複雜的應用過程,從而讓歷史學免於成為哲學或是文學。Abstract This study is to investigate Hu Shi's usage of words and their meanings referring to guojia from his first-hand historical materials during 1891-1917. In order to deal with the discovery of inconsistency in terms of Hu Shi's usage of words and understandings of guojia in his three stories at different points of time, also in his formation and transformation of the concept of guojia over the period, this study has constructed a theoretical framework based on Hans-Georg Gadamer's ontological reflection on the relationship between concept and object from his philosophical hermeneutics. After doing textual analyses and comparative studies on two of the three stories about Hu's understandings of guojia respectively in Chapter One, Chapter Two tries to bring to attention the significance of the processual and creative elements in Hu's concept formation by showing the link between the disintegration of his former ideas and reconstruction of his new understandings, with what he has experienced in Shanghai and the United States recorded in the first-hand historical materials. The study finally examines his thoughts on the legitimacy of guojia, especially pointing out his political participation in the United States, to demonstrate the possibility to reconcile the tension between cultural specificity and political universality on the issue of national identity.

Comments

研究論文呈交人文及創作系;指導老師: 黃國鉅博士論文(哲學碩士)--香港浸會大學, 2016.Abstract also in English.

Bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 149-158)

Copyright

The author retains all rights to this work. The author has signed an agreement granting HKBU a non-exclusive license to archive and distribute their thesis.



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