Author

吉靈娟

Year of Award

2016

Degree Type

Thesis

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

中國語言文學系.

Principal Supervisor

張宏生,1957-

Keywords

牡丹亭;湯顯祖, 1550-1616.

Language

Chinese

Abstract

This PhD dissertation studies the interpretation of the drama Peony Pavilion by Tang Xianzu(1555-1616) in the cultural and thoughts history of Qing dynasty. This study uses the theories of historical writing mirroring up literary writing by Hayden White, the methodology of literary history writing by Gustave Lanson, as well as the cultural memory theory by Jan Assmann, and under the guide of the approaches listed it tries to open a new way for the Peony Pavilion studies in the future. The dissertation is titled "Beyond Qing and Yu", which implies that the study will explore the alternative visions apart from the discussion on qing and yu. It will start from the transitional period of Qing and Ming and end up at the imperial reign of the King Daoguang. Many literatus in thoughts and cultural history will be discussed, such as Qian Qianyi, Liu Rushi, Chen Weisong, Lu Qi, Mao Qiling, Zhu Yizun, Hong Sheng, Jiang Shiquan and Ling Tingkan, all of whom have tried different ways to give interpretation of Peony Pavilion in varied historical and literary stands with distinctive identities. Their interpretative behaviors actually project the changes that took place in the cultural and thoughts history in Qing dynasty. The introduction part is a general description of the writing motives, approaches applied as well as brief summary of contents of each chapter. Chapter one studies the Peony Pavilion writing by Chen Weisong, Qian Qianyi and Liu Rushi. It argues that as an important symbol in Ming culture, the significance of Peony Pavilion is manifested in its high participation in Chen's memory of the elite culture of Ming dynasty. Peony Pavilion connects the literatus and other cultural elements in the landscape of Jin Ling district, which helps the poet to shorten the distance between the PAST and PRESENT. And in the second part of this chapter, the writing of Peony Pavilion by Qian Qianyi and Liu Rushi is discussed. As the core of elite culture memorized by Chen Weisong, Qian and Liu's interpretation of Peony Pavilion has made the picture of elite culture more vivid and touchable. What's more, the two parts have sharpened the contrast in cultural and political situation of the literatus before and after the fall of Ming Empire, which suggests the incurable trauma in their sentiments caused by the broken culture tradition after the fall of empire. Chapter two discusses the interpretation of the thoughts Qing(情)and Li(禮)of Peony Pavilion. This chapter begins with the description of two phenomenon, one is "worshiping faithful maiden"(貞女崇拜)and the other is "worshiping Du Liniang"in Qing dynasty, by means of constructing the writing tradition of faithful maiden in Ming and Qing, giving the reasons behind the cultural and literary interpretive behaviors, as well as pointing out the fact that Peony Pavilion was interpreted as a token of the thought of li(禮). As it occurs in the coincidence with the revival of the thought of li (禮)in Qing dynasty, it may provide another vision for inspecting the theme and thought by putting it against the Confucian ideological background. It argues that as a strong voice, the qing(情)and yu(欲)dominates the interpretation of Peony Pavilion, however, the cases showed in this chapter proves the possibility of alternative voice existing against the Confucian cultural background. Chapter three concentrates on the dramatic interpretation by Jiang Shiquan who lives in the reign of King Qianlong. This chapter breaks through the writing motive of Lin Chuanmeng臨川夢from the two aspects of "art"and "ethic", by pointing out that the reason why Jiang Shiquan wrote the drama Lin Chuanmeng lies on his deep understanding of Tang Xianzu as an ethical bureaucrat in the Ming history. The two main clues in Lin Chuanmeng run parallel to emphasize the ethical bureaucratic identity of Tang Xianzu, and Jiang Shiquan's historical way of interpretation of Peony Pavilion demonstrates the spirit of "sao "(騷)and "ya"(雅). Chapter four mainly discusses the three musical texts of Peony Pavilion, Nancixinpu, Nancidinglv, Jiugongdacheng, by means of textual research, it sorts out the distinctive features of each musical text on type of metre(板式), arias(唱腔) , main words(正字) and added words(襯字). It argues that the three musical texts contribute a lot in standardizing the singing of Peony Pavilion. In particular, Nancixinpu first avoids the deletion of words in the original text by Tang Xianzu, Nancidinglv first standardizes the metre of music, and Jiugongdacheng completes the Gongche (工尺)musical text for the first time. The last part concludes the dissertation. It points out that this study tries to open up alternative way of Peony Pavilion apart from the previous studies concentrating too much on the qing(情)and yu (欲). The value of the literature cannot be realized until it is gazed and inspected in a dynamic and open cultural ideological environment = 本文以《牡丹亭》在清代思想及文化史中的詮釋為研究對象,在西方新歷史主義代表海登·懷特關於話語、文學及歷史寫作的理論、朗松的文學史研究方法以及揚·阿斯曼文化記憶理論的指導之下,試圖開闢《牡丹亭》研究的新方向。本研究的主標題為:「情慾之外」。正如題目所展示的,本研究將尋求「情欲」討論框架之外,《牡丹亭》詮釋的多種可能性。這項研究主要觀察明末清初至清道光年間,在思想史及文學領域的具有重大影響力的學者如錢謙益、陸圻、陳維崧、毛奇齡、朱彝尊、洪昇、蔣士銓以及淩廷堪等,以不同的身份、在不同的文化情境之下對《牡丹亭》作出不同的詮釋,藉以反思思想意識形態以及文學理論的變化如何在《牡丹亭》的詮釋中得以客觀的投射。緒論部分是本研究的寫作動機、研究方法以及主要研究內容。第一章以明清之際陳維崧、錢謙益以及柳如是對《牡丹亭》的詮釋為主要研究對象,指出陳維崧將《牡丹亭》作為重要的指涉對象,其重要性體現在《牡丹亭》在精英時代回憶中的高度參與性,它與其他元素如金陵的人文地景之間固有的千絲萬縷的聯繫,幫助詩人努力縮短「今日」與「往昔」之間鴻溝的距離。錢謙益與柳如是關於《牡丹亭》的書寫,令陳維崧記憶中的「精英時代」更加清晰可辨,這兩個部分在時間上構成了一個連續,一方面呈現了明清之際精英文化的精緻面貌,另一方面又深刻揭示鼎革之後傳統文化的斷裂在士人生命中所造成的創痛。第二章進入《牡丹亭》「情禮相扶」的思想在清代被詮釋的討論。本章以「貞女崇拜」與「麗娘祭」為研究對象,藉助清代文人建構杜麗娘「貞女」文化行為,并將此種文化行為置於清代崇尚貞女崇拜、「禮教」復興的思想背景之下,一方面凸顯《牡丹亭》「情禮」思想的「對話」意義,同時也回應了本文在詮釋《牡丹亭》「情」「禮」思想的一個寫作立場,即任何一種文學接受,都不可能只有一條單一的主線,《牡丹亭》「情至論」是一種非常強大的聲音,「情慾」之外,仍然還是有「情」「禮」思想的共生同謀。第三章以蔣士銓所作《臨川夢》為主要研究對象,從「技藝」與「道心」兩個層面論述《臨川夢》對《牡丹亭》「騷雅」抒情與政教文藝精神的詮釋。本章指出《臨川夢》的寫作主旨為:《牡丹亭》乃湯顯祖抒發聖人之感,以「美人香草」自諭,寄託政治幽懷。《臨川夢》以湯顯祖政治生涯與《牡丹亭》創作為兩條主線,目的正是為強調湯顯祖政治身份,以寫史書的方式寫戲曲,進而凸顯《臨川夢》的寫作主旨乃是明確《牡丹亭》非一般詞章,而是湯顯祖以「美人香草」為諭,闡發「騷雅」抒情與政教文藝精神。第四章以《牡丹亭曲譜》及舞台選本為研究對象,通過考證與辨析的研究方法,指出各曲譜在點板、按腔方面如何體現《牡丹亭》唱腔的發展特點。本章認為,《南詞新譜》,《南詞定律》及《九宮大成》在糾正《牡丹亭》在唱腔上的「不協律」貢獻尤多,《牡丹亭》唱腔之程式化始於《南詞定律》,并在《九宮大成》中得以鞏固和完善。最後一部分是結論。本文在結尾處指出,「情慾之外」的「外」顯示了《牡丹亭》詮釋研究的開放性,一部文學作品必須置於動態與多元的文化環境觀察中,才能夠進一步顯現其在文學史中的價值。

Comments

指導老師: 張宏生教授.;硏究論文呈交中國語言文學系. 論文(哲學博士)--香港浸會大學, 2016. Abstract also in English.

Bibliography

Includes bibliographical references (pages 152-166).

Available for download on Saturday, February 27, 2027



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