http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2015-0320">
 

Document Type

Journal Article

Department/Unit

Department of Physical Education

Title

Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Mental Toughness Inventory among Australian, Chinese, and Malaysian Athletes: A Bayesian Estimation Approach

Language

English

Abstract

© 2016 Human Kinetics, Inc.The aims of this study were to assess the cross-cultural invariance of athletes' self-reports of mental toughness and to introduce and illustrate the application of approximate measurement invariance using Bayesian estimation for sport and exercise psychology scholars. Athletes from Australia (n = 353, Mage = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 161), China (n = 254, Mage = 17.82, SD = 2.28, men = 138), and Malaysia (n = 341, Mage = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 200) provided a cross-sectional snapshot of their mental toughness. The cross-cultural invariance of the mental toughness inventory in terms of (a) the factor structure (configural invariance), (b) factor loadings (metric invariance), and (c) item intercepts (scalar invariance) was tested using an approximate measurement framework with Bayesian estimation. Results indicated that approximate metric and scalar invariance was established. From a methodological standpoint, this study demonstrated the usefulness and flexibility of Bayesian estimation for single-sample and multigroup analyses of measurement instruments. Substantively, the current findings suggest that the measurement of mental toughness requires cultural adjustments to better capture the contextually salient (emic) aspects of this concept.

Keywords

Approximate measurement invariance, Bayesian, Cross-cultural psychology, Cultural sport psychology, Mentally tough

Publication Date

2016

Source Publication Title

Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology

Volume

38

Issue

2

Start Page

187

End Page

202

Publisher

Human Kinetics

ISSN (print)

08952779

ISSN (electronic)

15432904

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