Document Type

Journal Article

Department/Unit

Department of Chemistry

Title

Analytical challenges: Determination of tetrodotoxin in human urine and plasma by LC-MS/MS

Language

English

Abstract

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a powerful sodium channel blocker found in puffer fish and some marine animals. Cases of TTX poisoning most often result from puffer fish ingestion. Diagnosis is mainly from patient's signs and symptoms or the detection of TTX in the leftover food. If leftover food is unavailable, the determination of TTX in the patient's urine and/or plasma is essential to confirm the diagnosis. Although various methods for the determination of TTX have been published, most of them are for food tissue samples. Dealing with human urine and blood samples is much more challenging. Unlike in food, the amount of toxin in the urine and blood of a patient is generally extremely low; therefore a very sensitive method is required to detect it. In this regard, mass spectrometry (MS) methods are the best choice. Since TTX is a very polar compound, there will be lack of retention on conventional reverse-phase columns; use of ion pair reagent or hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) can help solve this problem. The problem of ion suppression is another challenge in analyzing polar compound in biological samples. This review will discuss different MS methods and their pros and cons. © 2011 by the authors.

Keywords

Biological samples, Ion suppression, LC-MS/MS, TTX poisoning

Publication Date

2011

Source Publication Title

Marine Drugs

Volume

9

Issue

11

Start Page

2291

End Page

2303

Publisher

MDPI

DOI

10.3390/md9112291

Link to Publisher's Edition

http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md9112291

ISSN (print)

16603397

ISSN (electronic)

16603397

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