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Abstract 摘要

The “Regulations on Medical Ethics for Medical Professionals in the PRC” promulgated by the Chinese Ministry of Health function as contemporary moral rules for medical professionalism. The principles underlying these ethical rules are not that different from those underlying bio-medical ethics in the West, which provides a broad platform for medical ethics and moral codes. However, this paper explores Confucian moral teachings to supplement the current discourse related to professional ethics. The issue up for discussion is how medical professionalism can be reconstructed based on Confucianism. This paper outlines the Confucian ethics that formed the cultural context in which traditional Chinese medical practice is perceived and conducted.

According to Confucianism and especially the tradition of ruyi (or literati-physicians), “humanness (ren) is the art of medicine and healing.” Medical practice is considered part of the process of moral self-cultivation. Accordingly, the principles of Confucian ethics in medicine are not confined to regulating the external conduct of the professional agent, but are extended to cultivate the internal disposition of the moral agent, allowing a physician to fully understand the appropriate relationship between the physician and patient. Moral codes and regulations are necessary and essential for sustaining any sound medical practice. However, according to Confucian teachings, it is more important for medical professionalism to involve a mechanism that can transform medical practice from a technical craft into a spiritual pathway.

中國傳統醫師職業精神是中國優秀職業精神的有機組成部分,影響其形成與發展有着多方面因素,尤其是儒家思想。儒家的人本文化特質為醫學、醫療實踐與醫師職業精神營造出濃郁的文化背景;儒家的“不為良相,當為良醫”的價值觀逐步提升了醫學與醫師職業精神的社會地位與價值;儒家的核心價值思想——“仁”深刻揭示了醫師職業精神的內在本質與要求;儒家的責任倫理使醫師在行醫實踐中始終按照社會對醫師職業的整體責任要求、按照為病家謀幸福的個體責任要求規範自己的言行;儒家的“修身”促進了醫師職業精神的養成。所有這些都從不同側面促進了中國傳統醫師職業精神的形成。儒家思想對中國傳統醫師職業精神的形成為當下中國醫師職業精神建設提供了有益的啟示與借鑒。

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