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Abstract 摘要

The problem of organ transplantation is an important issue in contemporary bioethics. From the vantage point of view of benefiting the human life, organ transplantation can be seen as lifesaving technology and a sign of a great progress of medical science. Nevertheless, organ transplantation involves profound ethical dimensions and ambiguities. This paper offers a study of organ transplantation from the perspective of Pure Land Buddhism. Shall then employ the Buddhist theories such as dependant origination, karma, reincarnation, and compassion to approach issues regarding cadaver organ transplantation, brain death, xeno-transplantation, and organ trading. Since Buddhist tradition holds the view that the consciousness does not leave the body that is pronounced dead immediately, it would be a problem if the organ is removed from “the dead,” which might interrupt the final destination of rebirth. The paper concludes that organ transplantation is a kind of human technology that violates the basic spirit of Buddhism.

器官移植的問題是當代生命倫理學的一個重要問題。如果從人類自身利益出發,這種被視為拯救危重病人生命的技術,的確是醫學科學的進步,但它涉及的社會倫理道德問題十分廣泛。如果從佛教倫理學——淨土宗的觀點出發,即以緣起論來認識屍體器官移植,則認為器官移植會使死者因強烈的痛苦而生嗔惱,障礙死者往生淨土;佛教的生死分際的判定標準——阿陀那識執受根身則認為腦死亡概念是由於器官移植術而產生的“腦死”名詞。另外,佛教的護生觀和平等觀反對異種移植和器官商業化。站在佛法的角度,器官移植不僅有違“眾生平等”的精神,而且可能成為“殺生利器”。

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