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Abstract 摘要

Daoism is a life philosophy that concerns living in line with the rules and patterns of nature. It is ecocentric instead of anthropocentric. In other words, Daoism sees the universe as an organic whole in which there is an intrinsic interconnectedness between the natural world (including animals) and human beings. The two values emphasized by Daoism are health and freedom, both of which are linked to the Daoist conception of nature and naturalness. The Daoist idea of naturalness (ziran) is based on the cosmological view that all things come from the Dao and that all things transform according to its pattern.

This essay examines the Daoist ethics of “natural life” and how it is understood within the bigger picture of an ecosystem shared by all living things. The author contends that the principle of health—the physical and spiritual well-being of a person—and the principle of human freedom should be associated with the ecological concerns of today.

以老莊的道家思想為憑鑒,切入對自然之物的生命倫理審視,萬物的發端離不開生命之道,生命的兩重價值在於健康與自由。理解生命之端倪在於合乎自然,它不僅善待自然界中的有機物與無機物,而且有效地遵循自然界的生命規律。對人類生命與自然生命的關係的認識是在交互超越主義的框架下進行,它們之間無所不在、無時不在的互動提供了一種視域融合式的自然辨證法觀念。在一個更寬廣的生命倫理學層面,我們必須把生命主體的範圍由人類推廣至自然界的所有生物,它們的生命不僅與人類一樣擁有內在價值,而且也應該被賦予道德權利。對自然生命的倫理審視,是對人類在生命倫理學的生態系統層面所提出的要求。自然生命保護的倫理原則,基本上可歸類為:健康原則、權利原則、自主原則、公正原則、關懷原則與尊重原則。

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