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Authors

Hongwen Li

Abstract 摘要

Biotechnology is a field of applied biology that involves the use of living organisms and bioprocesses such as engineering, technology, and medical research. This paper highlights the social, legal, and moral issues brought about by modern biotechnology. It is particularly concerned with materialism, capitalism, and commercialism where biotechnological means are explored and exploited without ethical boundaries. The result of biotechnological abuse is that we human beings will become increasingly alienated from our authentic nature and being.

Daoism was one of the major philosophical traditions of ancient China, based on the teaching of Laozi and Zhuangzi. This paper focuses on the Daoist view of human life and its relation to the natural world from Zhuangzi’s perspective. It will be contended that we must put “human flourishing” – the Dao – first, before we care about the utility of science and technology – the Ji. According to Daoism, true human self-realization depends on the unity between the Dao and the Ji.

現代生物科技的廣泛應用引發了一系列社會、法律和倫理問題,它帶來的負面效應正如它的正面效果一樣多。現代生物科技的基本邏輯體現在:它採取還原論的思維模式,秉承改善生命的宗旨,以及持有技術樂觀主義的態度。作者運用莊子的哲學思想對現代生物科技展開一般性批評。作者指出,現代生物科技首先表現出強烈的反自然性,它向自然提出過分要求,干擾、阻止事物順其自然、按其本性來展示自己。現代生物科技還表現出異化特徵,主要體現在物質化和資本化兩個方面。物質化將人的活動限制在物的層面,片面追求物的有用性;資本化則導致生物資本主義的發展。用莊子道家的語言,技術的非自然性和異化的直接原因是“道”“技”分離。因此,為了走出現代生物技術的陷阱,應該採取莊子“道技合一”的方式,實現“技不離道”、“以道馭技”、“道法自然”之完美結合。

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