Year of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Principal Supervisor



Tributary system (China), China, History, Ming dynasty, 1368-1644




孟森(1868-1938)先生曾言「中國自三代以後,得國最正者,惟漢與明。 匹夫起事,無憑藉威柄之嫌。為民除暴,無預窺神器之意。而明之驅元,又 多一光復華夏之功」點出了明太祖(朱元璋,1328-1398,在位1368-1398) 於國史上的地位在於「得國最正」及「光復華夏」,接著又提到「明祖有國, 當胡元盡紊法度之後,一切準古酌今,掃除更始,所定制度,遂奠二百數十 年之國基」、「清無制作,盡守明之制作,而國祚亦與明相等。故於明一代, 當措意其制作。措意明之制作,即當究心於明祖之開國」,歸納出「明祖開國」 於明清兩代五百餘年政治制度的意義。洪武時期於國史上的雙重意義,非常 值得我們探究,特別是太祖在「重造華夏」的過程底下傳統中國對外體制- 「朝貢制度」是怎樣被重新構築。這一新體制不論在思想、禮儀、政制或是 貿易層面都呈現與別不同的面貌,並深深地影響明清五百餘年的軌跡。此即 討論太祖朝貢制度之因由。 因此,本文以思想、禮儀、政制、貿易四項課題為重心,分為七章:第 一章為導論,從研究回顧、論文架構、史料、定義交代本文的佈局;第二章 從洪武時期的對外詔令、敕撰書考察明太祖的天下觀、對外思想與「朝貢」 理念;第三章,先梳理歷代賓禮的流變以突顯明代之特色,繼而從朝會、冊 封兩方面,分析太祖對外思想所呈現「華夷定分」的秩序;第四章,從洪武 賓禮的發展與實踐說明「重造華夏」的過程及其於東亞各國的文化意義;第 五章,從中央、地方機構兩層面說明「朝貢制度」的對外事務是如何被太祖 被重塑,並分析遣外使節的特色;第六章,利用計量分析,從「給賜」與「貢 物」兩方面說明「朝貢貿易」對明初社會經濟的影響,並從通貨、海禁、廢 除市舶司等背景評析。第七章為結論,對洪武時期「朝貢制度」作全面的評 價。 Meng Sen ( 孟森,1868-1938), one of the pioneers of Ming studies, highlighted the significance of Zhu Yuanzhang (Ming Taizu, r.1368-1398) as a leader who “recovered China (from “barbarian Yuan rule) and founded Ming institutions which would subsequently be adapted by the Qing state. Zhu Yuanzhang’s achievements in re-shaping the pattern and context of traditional Chinese foreign relations by establishing the tributary system exemplify his reputation for “recreating Hua-xia (the historical Chinese polity). This dissertation takes the “tributary system (chaogong zhidu) of the Ming dynasty’s Hongwu reign as a case study, exploring its characteristics through the lenses of statecraft philosophy, rituals, institutions and trade. It comprises seven chapters. Chapter one illustrate the scope, the methodology, and the sources of this research. Chapter two analyzes Ming Taizu’s views of Tianxia, diplomatic thought, and the definition of “tributary expressed in imperial edicts. Chapter three examines the Ming tributary system’s features by comparing the developments of “guest rituals. Chapter four analyzes the process and influence of “recreating Hua-xia by evaluating Hongwu’s guest rituals as an example. Chapter five shows the formation and restructuring of institutions dealing with foreign relations. Chapter six discusses the effectiveness of tributary trade by reviewing its fiscal background and the exchange of tribute items and gifts. The final chapter is the conclusion. By adopting such approaches, this dissertation strives to present a comprehensive picture about the Hongwu emperor’s contributions to traditional Chinese foreign relations.


硏究論文呈交歷史系 ; 指導老師: 李金強教授 ; 論文(哲學博士)--香港浸會大學, 2015.


Includes bibliographical references (pages 322-345)


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