Year of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
1644-1912.;China;Coast defenses;Guangdong Sheng.;History, Naval
After the capture of Taiwan, the Qing Court devoted its energy to securing China's northern border. While fending off the invasion of Russia and Dzungar, Emperors Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong exposed the Southeast maritime frontier to pirates and the British merchants who continued to harass Guangdong during the Jiaqing-Daoguang era. With the support of the Tây Sơn dynasty, pirates in the South China Sea formed an alliance that controlled the major waterways of Guangdong. The discovery of new routes to the East opened new markets for European countries. England seized the opportunity to attack Macao Bocca twice, to break into Tigris and eventually to wage the Opium War. Responding to the growing threat towards her coastal defense, the Qing government dispatched several Viceroys of Liangguang (Guangdong and Guangxi) and Guangdong Commanders in Chief to launch a range of counter measures. In both wars, official used the strategic of coastal defense, in order to cut off the supplement from inland against the pirates and the United Kingdom. Although the pirates and the United Kingdom were different enemies, Qing government used the same method that was not accidental. In the early Qing, coastal defense was managed by the provincial government. Therefore, the development of coastal defense was affected by the quantity of provincial government's resource. Because of the Qing government strictly controlled provincial government's finance; Guangdong's coastal defense was a passive and conservative system. In the context of globalization, Guangdong's coastal defense was challenged by pirates and the United Kingdom. At that time, Navy of Guangdong was weaker than its opponent. As a result, Viceroys of Liangguang (Guangdong and Guangxi) and Guangdong Commanders in Chief insisted to defense the coast line. They believed the opponents would be starved in the sea, however, the result was totally different. Why officials used the same method to deal with pirates and the United Kingdom will be explored in this article, so as to reflect the situation of Guangdong's coastal defense in Jiaqing and Daoguang's era = 自收復台灣後，東南海洋一直處於和平狀態，反觀在北方國境，俄羅斯及準噶爾部卻嚴重威脅清朝的國防。經過康、雍、乾三朝的努力，清廷終於解決北部的邊防問題。但此一形勢在嘉慶、道光年間產生變化，廣東海防卻要面對兩大強敵──海盜與英國。藉着越南西山政權的幫助，廣東海盜乘勢崛興，控制航道，專注於打劫往來船隻，更組成強大的聯盟。而西方國家亦積極東來尋找市場、商品，英國亦為其中之一。為改變與中國貿易的情況，英國曾兩次試圖入侵澳門、強闖虎門，更發動鴉片戰爭，令廣東海防面臨嚴重威脅。在迎戰海盜、英國的過程中，清廷先後委任多名兩廣總督、水師提督，試圖阻止這些強敵。為方便研究，本文選擇當中的重要人物，觀察他們的應敵之道。嘉慶十年（1805），海盜組成大聯盟，勢力如日方中，而那彥成、吳熊光、百齡正是於此時出任兩廣總督。道光十四年（1834）發生律盧卑事件，清廷又先後以關天培、林則徐南下廣東，積極改善虎門防務，防止英國進犯。在兩場戰爭中，當時的官員都堅持嚴守海岸的戰略，以封鎖政策截斷內地物資供應，對抗海盜及英國。面對不同的敵人，清廷使用相同方法並非偶然。海防在清代前期由地方自行管理，所以發展受到地方資源多寡的影響。由於清廷嚴格限制地方財政，加上受地形影響，廣東海防只能維持被動和保守的體制。在全球化的背景下，海盜及英國乘時而起挑戰廣東海防。當時廣東水師實力不及對手，所以兩廣總督、水師提督都固守海岸防線，期望將對手困死海上，但是效果卻是截然不同。本文將探討為何有關官員使用相同方法，應對海盜、英國的入侵的原因，從而反映嘉慶、道光年間廣東海防的情況。
Includes bibliographical references (pages 243-258).
袁展聰, "舊規制新戰爭 :嘉慶. 道光年間廣東海防研究 = Old military system vs. new naval warfare : a research on coastal defense of Guangdong during the Jiaqing-Daoguang era /袁展聰." (2016). Open Access Theses and Dissertations. 354.