Year of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Bronzes, Chinese ; To 221 B.C ; Inscriptions, Chinese ; History and criticism ; Rites and ceremonies ; China
第一章陳述周代酒禮的研究狀況。當時的酒禮的類別、內容、程序等都有很大的探討空間，但是首先要打破銘文釋讀的障礙。我提出從古文字形構的角度考察禮儀的雛形，隨即在第二章實踐。經過考察與祼禮有關的瓚、將等字的本義，勾勒字義的引申關係，用來訓釋銘文語境中的具體含義，以此為基礎來說明了瓚、將兩種事物的禮儀用途，結果得出銘文瓚字既是表示飲酒的工具也是表示獻酒的動詞，其中瓚字由於詞性變換而孳乳出「口+瓚」、「吅+瓚」的寫法，為 、 字。銘文「口+瓚」、「吅+瓚」的寫法，按辭例都表示讓人酒飲義，兩字是在「瓚」字的基礎上添加了「口」或「吅」，屬標示動詞用法的表義符號。至於祼將的將則屬於同源分化，由本指奉持的將字添加瓚形，產生了專指祼將（獻酒）的 字。第二章又牽涉到「X+某+出入/逆洀+事/將令」的辭例，X位置皆有供酒食之意，不應籠統以協助義當之，將命明顯是傳話之意。在飲食禮中設有訝者，兼任迎賓並傳達主賓之言。出入/逆洀乃形容傳命之行為，學者以為是名詞，指王的使者，非是。透過《儀禮》飲食禮儀程序的展現，可以反映這種套語所描述的實際內容。第三、四章討論「饗禮」，以主題用品劃分饗禮的類別，可以分為饗酒和饗醴兩種。在歸納銘文有「饗」字的辭例時，我發現了「饗醴」有「侑」，「饗酒」無「侑」的現象。侑是勸的意思，因飲料的種類有別，而有勸和不勸之別，反映了周初飲酒觀念對後來用酒制度的影響。類似的辭例用字上的差別未盡被揭櫫，而這些差別是還可以解決一些文字釋義的問題，例如飲、厚、懿、莤等字被討論過不少，可是還未算審諦。重新考察辭例後，可見飲不用於醴，厚、懿和醴、醫等事物有關，藉此對個別經傳文句提出新見，也進一步瞭解飲酒禮儀的內涵。第五、六章圍繞�字的本義、辭例、禮制、思想等各個方面做討論。�字形義蘊涵了飲酒行為，也是飲酒禮的基本模式，字中每一個部件，都可以在三《禮》所見的飲酒禮中找到實物，而�字包含了招待的義項，也和文獻以酒作為招待賓客的主要用品相符。 Documents from the early Western Zhou already indicate significant ideological differences between the Shang and Zhou dynasties. Instructions and commands written down in the da yu ding bronze inscription and the jiu gao ("royal mandate regarding drunkenness") chapter of the Shangshu, for example, show that the Zhou believed that the downfall of the Shang dynasty was brought on by their excessive indulgence in alcohol, and that they intended to admonish their own people for this behavior. However, the widespread use of bronze drinking vessels up until the mid-Western Zhou period suggests that this idea was only held up by the ruling elite of the early Western Zhou and did not expand throughout the entire territory. Only when the Zhou developed their own distinctive culinary and ritual culture from the mid-Western period on, bronze drinking vessels started to disappear from daily use. But the decrease of bronze drinking vessels does not necessarily mean that drinking alcohol for ritual purposes had been banned. From the mid-Western Zhou throughout the entire Eastern Zhou period characters related to these rituals--e.g. jiu酒（wine）, yin 飲 ("to drink"), xiang 饗 ("to offer food and drinks"), guan 祼 ("to pour out libation") and zan 瓚 ("libation cup")--continue to appear on bronze inscriptions and show that the use of alcohol was still an indispensable part within court meetings. Only the form, quantity and quality of the alcohol vessels and drinking habits underwent changes, but they had not been forbidden categorically. The aim of this thesis is to outline the evolution of ritual ceremonies involving the use of alcohol vessels during the mid-Western Zhou period. By this, I attempt to demonstrate that the importance of offering alcohol drastically declined during this era. One indicator for this development is the decline in offering jiu 酒 ("wine") and its replacement with li 醴 ("sweet wine"). Due to its lower levels of alcohol, a higher amount of "sweet wine" could be consumed without becoming intoxicated and was therefore more suitable in the effort to abide the instructions given by the founding fathers of the dynasty. Besides a comparison of the terms jiu 酒 and li 醴, this thesis also offers new paleographic and phonologic analyses of related characters--e.g. suo 縮 ("filter"), yin 飲 ("to drink"), hou 厚 ("richness"), yi 懿 ("fine"), zan 瓚 ("libation cup"), guan 祼 ("to pour out libation"), etc.--to contrast the ritual system as described in the old texts with the bronze inscriptions according to the shape and sound of the character as well as the actual artifact.
Includes bibliographical references (pages 152-169).
伍煥堅, "金文中所見與酒禮相關之禮制及文字研究= A study of related etiquette and words of ritual use of wine as shown in the inscriptions on bronze wares of the Zhou dynasty" (2018). Open Access Theses and Dissertations. 565.
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