Year of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Department of Chinese Language and Literature

Principal Supervisor

Chen, Zhi,1964-




十九世紀以來,桐城古文家與時勢危局、變革思潮相呼應,在近代文教轉型事業上留下了鮮活印跡。本論文以近代教育史上舊而能新、舉足輕重的人物----桐城古文家吳汝綸及其子吳闓生為主要研究對象,疏理、評述宗奉曾國藩一脈文統的北方古文家群體面臨西學引進、知識轉型挑戰的作為與意義。桐城古文家並非食古不化、墨守成規的頑固群體,他們徘徊古今、折中新舊的活力理應獲得公允持平的審視。藉助對詩文、書信、教科書翻譯等文獻的細讀與勾連,本論文嘗試體察研究對象面對時代困境的真實感受,既發掘他們「求新」的思考與嘗試,也正視他們「存舊」的矛盾與努力。以具體議題為線索,文章首先探討在清末教育改革的發端階段,吳汝綸立足保定蓮池書院,接續古文傳統,并致力於書院變通、學堂興辦,以新學啟沃人才的實績。他主張廢除科舉,使學堂兼具培育、選拔人才兩重功能,並以「文」為主,化約「中學」,為學子研習西學節約精力。其次,文章圍繞吳汝綸赴日視察期間所涉及的「國家」、「國語」相關議題,揭示他以自身影響力闡明「國語統一」的重要價值,不僅是在思維的轉捩點上倡導「共同語」之建立,更為「國語」當以何種形式進入教育體制的探討開創先河。最後一章將吳闓生編譯自明治日本的地理教科書《世界地理學》、歷史教科書《萬國通史》與原著進行比對,藉由譯者對原著內容的接受與過濾,勾勒出晚清地理決定論、文明等級論等觀念的跨文化流動及在地化演變的進程,尋繹其對民權革命之說的態度轉變。Since the nineteenth century, the Tongcheng scholars, in response to the political crisis and the call for change, have played an active and yet neglected role in the transition of literature and education in China. Focusing on two leading Tongcheng scholars Wu Rulun and his son Wu Kaisheng, who were disciples of Zeng Guofan, the dissertation attempts to explore how and why they dealt with the challenge of Western learnings and the imported new knowledge. The previous studies tended to regard them as cultural conservatives. This dissertation, based on an analysis of their poems, essays, letters, and translated textbooks, argues that the Tongcheng scholars like Wu Rulun and Wu Kaisheng not only strive to preserve the traditional Chinese learnings but also adjust their cultural practices to the trend they are faced. This dissertation consists of three parts. The first part examines how Wu Rulun, based in Lianchi Academy in Baoding, adopted reforms on the educational system and cultivated local talents by disseminating both skills of writing guwen (ancient-style prose) and new learnings. Wu Rulun, strongly opposing the imperial examination system, viewed the academy as an ideal way of integrating the Chinese and Western learnings, and as an alternative means of cultivating and selecting talents for the empire. The second part is the investigation into Wu Rulun's official visit to Japan. Influenced by the discussion of nation and national language in Japan, Wu Rulin started to develop his own discourse of language unification and to explore the possible ways of disseminating national language through the education system. The last part discusses Wu Kaisheng's translations of Meiji Japanese textbooks on world geography and world history. By doing a comparative reading of both primary sources and translated texts, this study illustrates how Wu Kaisheng was gradually convinced and adopted the theories of geographical determinism and civilizational hierarchy as well as the discourse of civil revolution.


Principle supervisor: Professor Chen Zhi ; Department of Chinese Language and Literature


Includes bibliographical references (pages 174-191)

Available for download on Thursday, August 04, 2022