Sino-Forest Applied Research Centre for Pearl River Delta Environment
In-vessel co-composting of horse stable bedding waste and blood meal at different C/N ratios: Process evaluation
Abattoir blood meal is rich in nitrogen and its potential as a co-composting material for horse stable bedding waste was evaluated at two C/N ratios - 32 (LBM, low blood meal) and 16 (HBM, high blood meal) - to improve the nutrient contents of the final compost. The mix was composted for 7 days in a 10 tonne/day in-vessel composter and cured aerobically. After 56 days of composting, the ammoniacal-N, CO2 evolution rate and C/N ratio of both LBM and HBM were within the guideline values; however, delayed decomposition and lower seed germination index were observed with HBM. In addition, HBM resulted in 84% loss of the initial ammoniacal-N. Almost similar organic decompositions, 62.4% and 59.6% with LBM and HBM, respectively, were achieved. However, a stable compost product can be obtained within 6-7 weeks with LBM, whereas <8 weeks were required for HBM composting. Therefore, co-composting at the C/N ratio of 32 is recommended to achieve odour-free and faster composting. © 2012 Taylor and Francis.
Abattoir blood meal, C/N ratio, Composting, Horse stable bedding waste, In-vessel
Source Publication Title
Taylor & Francis
Link to Publisher's Edition
Wong, Jonathan W.C., Ammaiyappan Selvam, Zhenyong Zhao, Obuli P. Karthikeyan, Shuk Man Yu, Alex C.W. Law, and Patricia C.P. Chung. "In-vessel co-composting of horse stable bedding waste and blood meal at different C/N ratios: Process evaluation." Environmental Technology 33.22 (2012): 2561-2567.