Department of Sport and Physical Education
Constraints of recreational sport participation: Measurement invariance and latent mean differences across sex and physical activity status
© Perceptual & Motor Skills 2014. The purpose of the current study was to (a) examine the measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex and physical activity status among the undergraduate students (N = 630) in Hong Kong and (b) compare the latent mean differences across groups. Measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex of and physical activity status of the participants was examined first. With receiving support on the measurement invariance across groups, latent mean differences of the scores across groups were examined. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the configural, metric, scalar, and structural invariance of the scale was supported across groups. The results of latent mean differences suggested that the women reported signifi- cantly higher constraints on time, partner, psychology, knowledge, and interest than the men. The physically inactive participants reported significantly higher scores on all constraints except for accessibility than the physically active participants.
Source Publication Title
Perceptual and Motor Skills
Link to Publisher's Edition
Liu, J., Chung, P., & Chen, W. (2014). Constraints of recreational sport participation: Measurement invariance and latent mean differences across sex and physical activity status. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 119 (2), 363-376. https://doi.org/10.2466/06.03.PMS.119c24z0