School of Chinese Medicine
Herbal healthcare products are used worldwide as relatively safe and effective alternatives to allopathic drugs. Saussurea laniceps Hand.-Mazz. (SL), S. medusa Maxim. (SM) and S. involucrata (Kar. et Kir.) Sch.Bip. (SI) are three sources of the renowned 'snow lotus', Chinese materia medica for treating inflammatory diseases. The three species have different therapeutic effects, among which SL has been proved to be the most potent, but they are frequently confused on the market and in the academic community. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS) method was developed and used to analyze 49 herbal samples for species analysis and overall quality evaluation. With 25 simultaneously identified constituents, of which 12 were quantified, the three herbs showed different chemical profiles. Four-dimensional principle component analysis (4D-PCA) and orthogonal hierarchical cluster analysis (2D-HCA) results illustrated that SL should be grouped away from SM and SI, contradicting the botanical record in Flora of China. The present chemical determination and pattern recognition results directly explain the therapeutic potency of SL and distinguish the three confused snow lotus herbs. Furthermore, the findings suggest a possible extensive quality evaluation model for multi-origin medicinal plants and help monitor falsification of snow lotus herbal products on the market, contributing to a more regulated pharmaceutical industry.
Snow lotus, herbal drugs, UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS, chemometric analysis, quality evaluation
Source Publication Title
Drug Testing and Analysis
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Chen, Q.-L., Zhu, L., Tang, Y.-N., Kwan, H.-Y., Zhao, Z.-Z., Chen, H.-B., and Yi, T. (2017) Comparative evaluation of chemical profiles of three representative 'snow lotus' herbs by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS combined with principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses. Drug Test. Analysis, 9: 1105–1115. doi: 10.1002/dta.2123., which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.2123. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
This research is funded by Faculty Research Grant of Hong Kong Baptist University, grant number: RG2/14-15/061; Innovation and Technology Fund of Hong Kong, grant number: ITS/280/15; National Natural Science Foundation of China, grant number: 81673691; Guangdong Natural Science Foundation, grant number: 2014A030313766, 2016A030313008; Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Committee, grant number: JCYJ20160427163929037
Link to Publisher's Edition
Chen, Q., Zhu, L., Tang, Y., Kwan, H., Zhao, Z., Chen, H., & Yi, T. (2017). Comparative evaluation of chemical profiles of three representative 'snow lotus' herbs by UPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS combined with principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses. Drug Testing and Analysis, 9 (8), 1105-1115. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2123