Document Type

Journal Article

Authors

Yanqiu Zhou, State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Hongxiu Liu, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
Jiufeng Li, State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Shunqing Xu, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
Yuanyuan Li, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
Hongzhi Zhao, State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Hangbiao Jin, State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Wenyu Liu, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
Arthure C. K. Chung, State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Yanjun Hong, State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Xiaojie Sun, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
Yangqian Jiang, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
Wenxin Zhang, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
Jing Fang, State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Wei Xia, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education & Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China
Zongwei Cai, State Key Laboratory of Environmental and Biological Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong

Department/Unit

Department of Communication Studies

Language

English

Abstract

Background

Benzotriazoles (BTRs) and benzothiazoles (BTHs) are emerging contaminants with high production volume worldwide, which exhibit potential health risk to human. To date, little is known about the exposure of BTRs and BTHs (BTs) on human, especially in the context of pregnancy.

Objectives

We aimed to characterize the exposure profiles, temporal variability, and potential predictors of urinary BTs during pregnancy.

Methods

Between 2014 and 2015, we recruited 856 pregnant women in Wuhan who provided urine samples at three trimesters (13.1 ± 1.1, 23.7 ± 3.2, and 35.7 ± 3.4 gestational weeks). We measured the urinary concentrations of five BTRs (1‑H‑benzotriazole, 1‑hydroxy‑benzotriazole, xylyltriazole, tolyltriazole, 5‑chloro‑1‑H‑benzotriazole) and five BTHs (benzothiazole, 2‑hydroxy‑benzothiazole, 2‑methylthio‑benzothiazole, 2‑amino‑benzothiazole, 2‑thiocyanomethylthio‑benzothiazole) to characterize the exposure profiles of BTs. We calculated the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) to assess the temporal variability and investigated potential predictors of urinary BTs by using the mixed models.

Results

Most of the targeted BTs were detected in over 50% of urine samples, except for 5‑chloro‑1‑H‑benzotriazole (9.3%) and 2‑thiocyanomethylthio-benzothiazole (1.4%). The predominant BTRs in urine was 1‑hydroxy‑benzotriazole [Geometric Mean (GM): 0.77 ng/mL]. Benzothiazole was the major derivative in urine samples with a GM concentration of 1.6 ng/mL. Correlations among BTHs (r = 0.04–0.39) were higher than that among BTRs (r = 0.02–0.14). The exposure pattern was constant at low level and co-exposure to all the targeted compounds was infrequent during pregnancy. Urinary concentrations of BTRs exhibited considerable within-subject variation (ICCs: 0.12–0.56) during pregnancy. Relatively high temporal reliability was observed for urinary concentrations of BTHs with ICCs ranging from 0.42 to 0.85. It was found that parity, household income, pregnancy occupational status, sampling season and menstrual cycle were associated with urinary concentrations of BTs in pregnant women (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the exposure profiles, variability and predictors of urinary BTs among pregnant women. Exposure assessment using multiple samples is essential in reducing measurement errors and identifying susceptible window of exposure in etiological studies. The potential predictors of urinary BTs raised concerns on tracing exposure routes and eliminating confounding variables in future studies.

Keywords

Benzotriazoles, Benzothiazoles, Pregnant women, Urine Temporal variability, Predictors

Publication Date

12-2018

Source Publication Title

Environment International

Volume

121

Start Page

1279

End Page

1288

Publisher

Elsevier

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

DOI

10.1016/j.envint.2018.10.050

Link to Publisher's Edition

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.10.050

ISSN (print)

01604120

ISSN (electronic)

18736750

Included in

Chemistry Commons

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