Abstract 摘要

Health is fundamental to the human condition. The concept of health is culture-dependent and historically developed in each culture. The Huangdi Neijing (The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine) is an ancient Chinese masterpiece about human health and medical treatment. Based on the classical Chinese view of the unity of heaven and man, the Huangdi Neijing understands health as somatic and spiritual harmony: it emphasizes the smooth fluxing of the qi essence, the well-structured body, the fullness of vitality, and the equilibrium of yin and yang. In addition, health is an individual and dynamic concept, according to which the degree of one’s health depends on social standing, status, age, and geographic environment. To maintain and pursue health, humans must comply with the laws of nature, such as by staying emotionally calm, seeking the balance of yin and yang, controlling the diet, regulating living schedules, avoiding overwork, preventing evil factors, and pursuing internal spiritual orientation. These ideas of health are in many ways consistent with, and even comparable to, the holistic definition of health provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, they are characteristic of a particular Chinese culture, providing a more vivid and concrete account of health than the more general view of the WHO.

健康是人的一種生存狀態,也是一個歷史和文化的概念。古老的東方醫學名著《黃帝內經》從天人合一的哲學觀念出發,把人的健康定義為:形與神俱,氣脈常通;形體不敝,精神不散;陰平陽秘,精神乃至。同時認為健康是一個個體化和動態的概念,因人的身份地位、年齡長幼和地理環境不同而有所差別。對於保持和追求健康的手段,強調人應當順應大自然的法則,包括人之常“平”、“法”於陰陽、“和”於術數、飲食有“節”、起居有“常”、“不妄”作勞、虛邪賊風“避”之有時以及精神“內守”等。與WHO 的健康概念相比,《黃帝內經》的健康概念更為生動和具體,且具有普遍的文化價值。