Abstract 摘要

Traditional Chinese ethics contain profound bioethical teachings and principles. For the purpose of understanding and reflecting on the ongoing health care system reform in mainland China in recent years, it is important to rediscover, recognize and understand the central teachings of traditional Chinese ethics, especially the cardinal Confucian virtues in Chinese traditions. It is implausible to pursue health equality for everyone, as individuals inevitably exhibit differences in their health conditions no matter what kind of health care system is maintained. However, it is plausible to accomplish health equality in the sense that everyone in society enjoys a similar public health care system. With the great achievements made during the eight-year process of health care system reform in China, health equality has rightly become the target of reform and been significantly improved. Following the cardinal Chinese ethical virtues and principles that advocate for both universal and differentiated/graded love, the Chinese reform should not only pursue health equality, but also allow individuals to pursue private insurance schemes for themselves and their family members to practice differentiated/graded love. The government should not only ensure equality of public insurance for everyone in Chinese society, but also leave sufficient room for individuals to purchase private insurance for better or quicker health care.