Abstract 摘要

A head transplant is an experimental surgical operation involving the grafting of one organism’s head onto the body of another. Since 2017, with the announcement of the Heaven project, the possibility of head transplantation has raised public concern and caused heated ethical debate in China. This essay approaches the discussion from the perspective of the relationship between the head and the body in ancient Chinese literature. The study highlights the traditional Chinese belief in the unity of corporeality and spirituality, with the human mind viewed as the foundational element of personal identity. The essay also interprets stories involving head removal and head transplantation from the perspective of medical ethics today.

2017 年開展的換頭術引發社會各界關注和談論。本文嘗試對中國古代文獻資料中提及的有關頭身分離後重聯的故事進行整理研究,以探討中國文化中的頭身關係及其與現代換頭術之間的關聯和倫理衝突。筆者使用資料庫檢索獲取文獻,經過人工篩選納入符合本研究的故事。精讀後分組,歸納各組案例的特色並與換頭術進行比較研究。通過四組故事分析後,可見其綜合體現了中國傳統信仰中的魂魄觀、傳統哲學中的形神觀、傳統中國醫學中“心主神明”的觀念以及中國中古外科手術的狀況。而當代換頭術即使獲得技術的成功也更加需要回應文化、倫理的拷問。