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Article Title

自殺的道德難題

Abstract 摘要

People recognized suicide as a mystery. It originates in a certain degree from ethical dilemma which exists in three stages of suicide prevention and controlling: prevention, intervention and postvention. There are so many ethical dilemmas in each stage. It appears as the dilemma between humanism and liberalism in prevention stage. In crisis intervention stage, between life saving and death letting. In postvention stage, between humanism and utilitarianism, motivism and effectism. Differentiate the morality of suicide behavior depends upon manipulating the dilemmas. Since the dilemma is actually a paradox, so that it cannot be solved in logical analysis but value analysis combined with quantitative analysis and qualitative analysis.

自殺的神秘性,一定程度來源於道德難題。自殺的預防與控制有三個階段:自殺預防對策,自殺危機對策,自殺事後對策。三個階段都存在道德難題。在自殺預防階段是人本主義還是自由主義。宗教人本主義和哲學人本主義都有贊成和反對的。自由主義則贊成自殺。因此又衍生自殺預防的有效性問題。在自殺危機干預階段,是救生論還是聽死論。在事後對策階段是人道主義還是功利主義,是動機論還是效果論。判別自殺行為的道德性是一種二難推論。這種二難推理,實際上是一種道德悖論,它不能邏輯方法解決,要用價值分析方法解決。定量分析與定性分析相結合。風險/效益是首選法。

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