Feminists find that females tend to focus on details about the relationships among the persons involved and to seek innovative solutions that protect everyone's interest. In contracts, males typically try to identify and apply a relevant principle or rule (which they take to be universal or valid from an impartial perspective), even if doing so means sacrificing someone's interest. Feminists call the former approach an ethics of care (or responsibility) and the latte an ethics of justice.
Feminism thinks ethics of justice includes bioethical theories such as Engelhardt's "Secular Bioethics", Veatch's "Contract Ethics", Deontological Theory, Utilitarianism, Beauchamp and Childress' principlism, Pellegrino's virtue and duty-based ethics, and so on. Feminists criticize ethics of justice or all of bioethical theories seriously. The ethics of care challenges all of these dominant bioethical theories as deductivism and principle-based ethics. Feminists down play the role of rights and allegedly universal principles and rules, in favor of an emphasis on caring, interpersonal relationships, and context.
I think a view about ethics of care and ethics of justice should meet each other in the practice of bioethics arrived after reviewing the criticism of feminists. The essay concludes that there is no reason to consider the ethics of care inferior or the ethics of justice inferior. An ideal bioethics should incorporate both approaches.
女性主義倫理學家將生命倫理學諸理倫，如 Engelhardt 的把自主性放在第一位的“世俗多元倫理學”，Veatch的“契約論倫理學”，Pellegrino以有利或行善原則為基礎的倫理學，羅爾斯的“正義倫”倫理學；道義論倫理學，後果論倫理學，以及Beauchamp 和Childress的原則倫理學等統稱為“正義倫理學”（Ethics of Justice），其理論模型稱“工程模型”（Engineering Model），將它們與“關懷倫理學”（Ethics of Care）及“關懷模型”（Caring Model）相對立，以女性主義的視角，對生命倫理學理論和實踐進行了批評。審視女性主義對生命倫理學的批評，對照和比較女性主義關懷倫理學與生命倫理學，我們發現女性主義關懷倫理學的理論和內涵，確實給人以清新的感覺，女性主義關懷倫理學與生命倫理學如能互補，將對倫理推理和倫理難題的解決，提供較好的倫理理論和實踐方法。