Based on the fact that medical students at Peking University and at the University of Chicago have different moral responses to a case of medical ethics, this essay raises a question regarding the education of medical ethics: how can medical students realize their medical morality? It firstly offers a general introduction to the distinct working systems of the Center of Clinical Ethics at the University of Chicago and the Teaching and Research Office of Medical Ethics at Peking University Health Science Center. Then it compares the essential differences of the two institutions in their working systems. Generally speaking, there exist differences between the two institutions in the age of students at medical school, their objectives of choosing to study medicine; methods of medical ethics teaching, and education systems. In particular, even though case study as an important educational method is used commonly in current China, it is difficult to deepen the content and strategy of the teaching. Sometimes students think they have not learned anything from the teaching of medical ethics. Simply speaking, it is because there are no fixed, black-or-white answers to many cases used in the course. More essential reason, however, lies in the quality of medical ethics teachers themselves. They often cannot do a good job on the way of teaching and fail to lead students to think carefully. As a result, they cannot assist students to improve their ability to analyze and resolve ethical issues. The essay concludes that education of medical ethics is a systematic moral engineering. It should be paid attention not only to the effective methods of teaching (such as case analysis) and the promotion of the quality of medical ethics teachers, but also to the combination between medical ethics teachers and physicians in clinical practice, and the establishment of hospital ethics committees and IRBs. The essay recommends that Chinese medical ethics teachers, hospital managers and university administrators should appreciate the importance of medical ethics education and help medical ethics teachers and researchers go into practice through certain routine channels, strengthen the training of the humanities on the side of medical ethics teachers, and at the same time make good progress in the continuous ethical education of physicians.