The problem of organ transplantation is an important issue in contemporary bioethics. From the vantage point of view of benefiting the human life, organ transplantation can be seen as lifesaving technology and a sign of a great progress of medical science. Nevertheless, organ transplantation involves profound ethical dimensions and ambiguities. This paper offers a study of organ transplantation from the perspective of Pure Land Buddhism. Shall then employ the Buddhist theories such as dependant origination, karma, reincarnation, and compassion to approach issues regarding cadaver organ transplantation, brain death, xeno-transplantation, and organ trading. Since Buddhist tradition holds the view that the consciousness does not leave the body that is pronounced dead immediately, it would be a problem if the organ is removed from “the dead,” which might interrupt the final destination of rebirth. The paper concludes that organ transplantation is a kind of human technology that violates the basic spirit of Buddhism.