This essay introduces the basic content and key features of the document “Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physicians’ Charter” issued by a few American and European medical organizations in 2002. It provides a Confucian evaluation of the fundamental professional principles that the Charter upholds: the primacy of patients’ welfare, patients’ autonomy, and social justice. Drawing on rich Confucian moral and intellectual resources, this essay shows that these fundamental principles must be reinterpreted in terms of Chinese medical ethical concerns and commitments in relation to Chinese healthcare contexts. For example, the principles of the primacy of patient’s welfare and patients’ autonomy may be difficult to uphold in real-life situations. How should we resolve such conflicts? Chinese and Western views and methods may differ. This essay provides three cases to illustrate how Confucian ethical views bear on healthcare decision making. These case studies demonstrate how Confucian moral resources can be drawn on to interpret, enrich, and adapt the fundamental principles promoted by the Charter to guide Chinese health carein real-life settings.
本文在介紹《新世紀醫師專業精神——醫師宣言》(Medical Professionalism in the New Millennium: A Physicians’ Charter) 產生的背景、發展狀況、醫師專業精神的基本內容與含義基礎上，從儒家醫學倫理的視角出發，結合案例分析，著重對將患者利益放在首位的原則與利他主義原則、患者自主原則、社會公平原則進行比較、分析和解讀。