The medical reform in China over the past decade is facing various challenges, such as physician-patient relations, healthcare allocation, and the ethics of medical professionalism. This paper attempts to argue that the medical situation in China today cannot be fully understood without examining its cultural, social, and political superstructure, which clarifies the situation in China in the current transitional stage. The studies described in the paper are based on documented literatures that include various “ideal types” in terms of moral philosophies and governmental policies intended to resolve the problems at the practical level. Nevertheless, the attempt to uncover what they refer to as a form of “structural bioethics” could directly influence the on-going medical reform today as well as the re-construction of bioethical theory in China. The approach taken in the paper is historical, textual, and sociological.