Faculty Advisor

Dr. David Schley


The binary relationship of gender became the metaphor in explaining the relationship among the race. The West symbolized “masculinity” while the East was regarded as “femininity”.1 Michael Parks drew on the connection between “masculinity” and citizenship. Asian American male were denied from citizenship until mid 1940s. 2 This implied the group of Asian immigrants were regarded as “non-male” from the U.S government perspective in the 19th and early 20th century. The gendered stereotypes became one of the factors for understanding the American immigration policy.

This article will try to examine the gender stereotypes on the Chinese and Japanese immigrants. That was, analyzing the similarities and differences among the images of Chinese and Japanese men as well as women from American perspective. Those stereotypes helped to understand the racial relationship among Asian immigrants and the white Americans in different genders. More importantly, the differences among the public images among Chinese and Japanese contribute to the diverse American policies towards their community respectively. The time scope for this article would cover from 1850s to early 1920s. The 1850s marked the early massive arrival of Chinese immigrants where 1920s symbolized the end of Asian immigrants in pre- WWII period. Regarding the geographical scope, the study would be limited to California where it was the most populous state for Chinese and Japanese immigrant in continent America.


Department of History

Year of Award




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Student Paper

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History Commons