Document Type

Book Chapter


Department of Physical Education


TAL is a system using small FM transmitters and receivers to link novices (student-teachers) and experts in authentic learning contexts. This technique has been found to be useful in supervising student-teachers on practicum (Giebelhaus, 1994), teaching school counselors in interview situations (Gordon, Lane & Hall, 1998) and early childhood teachers in mock employment interviews (White & Gordon, 2000). In the sports education context, Kahan (2002) used this device, which is termed as bug-in-the-ear device, for communication between a student-teacher and the cooperating teacher during physical education classes. He concluded that the device was a valuable tool for use in supervision. However, apart from his work, there is little evidence that such wireless communication has been applied in the physical education and sports skill pedagogy area. From our experience in teacher education training and supervision, we saw the potential of this technique for situated learning of both classroom management and instructional techniques in pre-service teacher training programmes. Specifically, the enhancement of teaching or coaching for student-teachers can be achieved through micro-teaching and authentic teaching practice in schools. The teacher educator or sports skill instructor can directly communicate with the student-teacher through a linkage by transmitter and receiver while the student-teacher can simultaneously teach and receive help. The teacher educator or sports skill instructor can help the student-teacher to deliver quality teaching by providing immediate and focused feedback about their teaching classroom management skills and sports skill.


Transmitter Assisted Learning, teaching practice, Physical Education student-teachers

Publication Date


Source Publication Title

Studies on Teaching and Learning



Start Page


End Page



Hong Kong Baptist University

Place of Publication

Hong Kong

Link to Publisher's Edition

ISBN (print)