The effects of mindfulness training on beginners' skill acquisition in dart throwing: A randomized controlled trial
Objectives The present study was into whether or not mindfulness training, based on the mindfulness-acceptance-commitment approach (MAC), can improve beginners' skill acquisition of dart throwing. Design Randomised controlled trial. Methods A total of 43 first-year college students who had not played darts professionally prior to the study were randomly assigned to either an attention control group (n = 21) or a mindfulness training group (n = 22) during an eight-week dart training program. Dart throwing and psychological variables were assessed at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and two-week follow-up. Results Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the mindfulness group, but not the attention control group had significant improvements in mindfulness, experiential acceptance, and flow at post-intervention and follow-up. Although both groups improved dart throwing performance after the intervention, the improvement of the mindfulness group was statistically higher in comparison to that of the attention control group. Conclusions It was concluded that the MAC approach could improve the performance and adaptive sport experience of beginners in dart throwing.